The Secret History of Art

Piero della Francesca In Situ, Part Two

Madonna del Parto: This painting stops you in your tracks.

/ by Noah Charney

This is Part Two of an article which ran last Tuesday.

 

The Resurrection

The author (and his mom) in front of a Piero altarpiece.
The first stop on my three-part Piero tour is Sansepolcro. A mid-sized town, it has plenty of restaurants and delightful churches to keep you busy for a full day, including surprising works by Rosso Fiorentino and Perugino, if you need a break from your Pietro quest. And here is our first stop. At the Museo Civico you can find several Piero paintings, but the star attraction is his Resurrection, a fresco painted around 1460. It is the reason the Museo Civico is where it is—it was originally a palazzo, converted recently to a museum because this magnificent fresco already decorated its wall. You’ll notice some nodes on the wall around the fresco—those are vibration sensors, an anti-theft mechanism that detects whether someone might be chiseling into the wall to slice out the fresco and run.

Poet of the Week
Anna Axfors
Twitter time

all ”clickbait” touches me

 

am I the only one who hates princess madeleine’s kids?

 

Brush off the ash from the lips

 

Can someone give me peace in my soul????

 

Damn I should get interested in science like space n nature. Anyone know a good documentary about this?

 

Everyone who wants to shorten my poems are fascists

 

Everything should be punk

 

God how you enjoyed crying as a kid. And your mom said ”sorry” & tried to comfort but you kept crying because it was so nice being powerful

 

how would I do without twitter? like the sun without the moon. would be fine that is

 

I am Zlatan

 

I’ve forgotten you all because that’s the way I am. living in the present

 

if I happen to die vry soon I want you to know that I loved you all, boys & girls, adults & kids, black & white, I liked everyone equally

 

I met an auschwitz survivor yesterday. he said that I looked like the woman in the

tv series bron

 

I want someone to favorite my tweets. now.

 

 

I want to tattoo something from the sea

 

It’s twitter time. It’s that time of day

 

just cooked some fucking meal that some fucking farmer in the country could’ve cooked

 

Life feels like a nightmare

 

Looking down at my phone

 

lying at the cemetery while writing, it feels symbolic

 

Now I’m going to estimate how many ppl that are in love with me, I think

it might be ten ppl. Don’t know if it’s an over- or underestimate

 

One of the most chillingly cheesy things I know: sayin that someone is your grandpa though he isn’t, just bc it’s an old man that you know

 

Poets are like models but within text

 

Something happened a couple of years ago

 

The title of my autobiography:

I’m half dog half wolf

 

The train has been standing still in the woods 4ever…always scared it’s war when that happens.

”The train is standing still due to war”

 

This tweet is sponsored by my brain

 

Trying to come up with stuff to tweet

that doesn’t infringe on my integrity

 

Ultrasound, that’s child pornography to me

 

watching a documentary about metallica,

on mute

 

what are you supposed to bring to the beach? anyone know?

 

what if a book was published containing everything that has been written and then deleted. I would like to read that book.

 

What if bus driver was to be the new high-status profession

 

what if you have misunderstood a lot of people?

 

When I get home I wanna watch a documentary

 

when I saw a guy today it felt like I had dated him in my previous life

 

why aren’t beds designed more like hospital beds? height adjustable with one of those tables attached to it

 

why do people hate on those animal click links? they’re usually very cute/entertaining/touching!!!

 

wonder how it feels to kill someone.

 

Wonder if God sent all people to earth just so he could get free porn

every day

The subject of the painting is Christ’s Resurrection. He rises, with militaristic posture, out of the Holy Sepulchre (from which the town gets its name), and one can imagine the thrum of snare drums beating in the background to announce his rise from the dead. He confronts the viewer face-on, a posture reserved for depictions of Christ and God in past centuries, and he carries the cross of Saint George like a battle flag in his hand. Before him lie sleeping four guards in various poses that allow Piero to show off his mathematically-accurate handling of perspective—particularly the second guard from the left (whom the Renaissance painter and historian, Giorgio Vasari, claimed was a self-portrait of Piero) is slumped back, leaning against the marble tomb, but foreshortened, to appear as if he is inhabiting a three-dimensional space. This image has nothing to do with the Bible’s own description of the scene—in the Bible, Christ is entombed in a cave, its entrance closed with a rock. In the background, to Christ’s right are young, lively trees, while to his left are older, dying ones. The guard holding a lance, which recalls the lance-wound on Christ’s right side, inflicted by Longinus as he hung on the cross, to ensure that Christ was, in fact, dead, is posed in an impossible manner, apparently without legs. Piero has taken some flack from critics, who say that he was so focused on the mathematics of art, of getting the perspective correct, that he skipped over little details like accurate human anatomy. I’m inclined to let this slide, since my favorite period in art is mid-16th century Mannerism, when bodies were intentionally distorted by artists for dramatic effect. The math is complicated here, as the painting employs two, rather than the standard single, vanishing points: one is at Christ’s head, the other at the center of the sarcophagus. Aldous Huxley called this “the world’s best picture,” and while I’m not sure I’d go quite that far, my trip was already worthwhile for the feeling of grandeur and elevation I had while seeing this fresco in the space for which it was created.

 

The Madonna del Parto

Ever since my first screening of Nostalghia, I’d anticipated seeing the Madonna del Parto. But I’m a few decades too late to really do it justice. In order to better preserve it, it was long ago moved from the tiny church in Monterchi, Santa Maria di Momentana. I was prepared to be under-whelmed by this translocated masterpiece. But then I saw it.

Without going there in person, anything I write will sound trite, so you’ll just have to believe me. This painting stops you in your tracks. Even when I view reproductions now, the postcard of it I bought at the gift shop, or high-resolution digital images online, I feel unmoved. Meh. But in person—wow. There is the aura of which Benjamin wrote, shimmering invisibly out of the painting, but visibly affecting all of its viewers, including the throng of elderly visitors on a package tour, their guide shouting to be heard in Italian and gesticulating as if he were in the midst of an interpretive dance. Two angels push aside imaginary curtains, which would have mirrored actually curtains flanking the painting, allowing it to be revealed to pilgrims at selected moments, and otherwise shielded from view—another aspect lost when a work is transplanted. The light must also be taken into consideration. Of course it’s easier to see such works in a gallery setting, with defused overall lighting. But they were never meant to be seen that way, and the chicanery of natural light flowing from clerestory windows, or the flicker of chapel candles, is part of the drama of such works. They are meant to be difficult to discern, particularly when they lurk in shadowy church alcoves, heightening their drama and forcing the viewer to look long and hard and close, just to make out the details. It is an entirely different viewing experience, one that galleries do not permit, so our imagination must be employed, balancing the work in the gallery with our experience of dimly-lit churches and the mysteries that works remaining in them would hold. But this work has a vibe like the Resurrection, one that was entirely lost to me until I saw it in person. I can see why it would be an object of pilgrimage.

 

The True Cross fresco cycle

The great city of Arezzo is hardly visited, compared to its touristy neighbors, Siena and Florence, with Rome not far, and feels the more rewarding for this fact. It cannot be called a hidden treasure, but it is one that only the wiser tourists will experience. The city of Vasari, it boasts an impressive archaeological museum and several days’ worth of sites to visit. But we’re here on business. In the church of San Francesco, we can find Piero’s most complete and impressive work. Here, Piero frescoed the entire apse with a cycle of works surrounding the legendary finding of the True Cross by Saint Helena. This work comprises dozens of frescoes, their stories linked to one another, to the history of the church itself, to the relics it contains, to sculptural, architectural and other painterly works in it. It is a gesamtkunstwerk, that wonderful German word for which there is no English equivalent, meaning a complete work of art, multi-dimensional, multimedia. Standing inside the space is the only way to experience it—no slides or virtual tour can match the multisensory experience.

Art history books tend to reproduce just the single image from this multifaceted cycle, when Saint Helena prays and the location of the True Cross reveals itself to her. But there is more story present here. The layout, for example, is the opposite of what you’d expect: a chronology of events surrounding the story of the cross on which Christ was executed, running from the death of Adam in Genesis through the7th century AD. But Piero arranges the images, like panels in a comic book, backwards, reading from right to left—like the Hebrew of the Old Testament. There is a striking night scene which shows the dream of Emperor Constantine, the first Christian emperor, and unusual positioning of bodies—it was striking to have so many figures in a fresco with their backs facing the viewer. As might be expected from Piero the mathematician, he does wonderful things with perspective, nowhere more clearly than in The Discovery and Proof of the True Cross, in which buildings vanish into the background while the cross, used to raise the dead, pushes out into the foreground and appears in danger of poking itself out of the frescoed wall.

Suffice it to say that taking on this artistic pilgrimage is not only a lovely excuse for a ride through Tuscany, but also provides a depth and weight to visiting unique, in situ artistic masterpieces that are too easy to dismiss, when viewed only in reproductions in a darkened auditorium, or set against the glow of one’s computer screen.

....
Noah Charney

is a professor of art history and best-selling author of, most recently, The Art of Forgery. You can learn more about his work at www.noahcharney.com or by joining him on Facebook.


Related